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Previous Research

Are any of the aforementioned assumptions correct? Some empirical research has been conducted regarding music as a general emotional elicitor. Research done by Konecni shows clear emotional effects of music.

Loud and complex melodies arouse non-aroused and aroused people to anger and soft and simple melodies soothe aroused people (Konecni, 1982).

Other studies have shown clear effects of music on the listener. An article entitled "The effects of Music on Responses to a Dining Area" in the Journal of Environmental Psychology shows that the style and complexity of music can affect the diners' mood.

Zalanowski "found that soothing music, as opposed to stimulating or no music, led to an increased level of verbalization in a discussion group" (North, 1996).

May and Hamilton "studied the effects of music of positive affect, music of negative affect and no music on the physical attractiveness that female subjects perceived in photographs of males" (North, 1996). And Milliman found that "fast music led to shoppers moving more quickly but spending less money than when slow tempo music was played" (North, 1996).

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